安防技術解決智慧社區建設中的瓶頸與疑難方法淺析

2019-06-13 09:57 來源: 電子發燒友網
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  從安防的角度來看,社區主要可分為開放式社區與封閉式社區,其中開放式社區主要包括城中村 / 轉制社區、商住混合社區等類型;封閉式社區主要包括物業小區、單位大院等類型。不同類型的社區面臨的安全風險、需解決的防范問題大相徑庭,需聯動的干系方也各不相同。

  安防技術解決智慧社區建設中的瓶頸與疑難方法淺析

  1.城中村/轉制社區(開放式社區)安防難點分析

  以開放式社區中的城中村/轉制社區為例,由于歷史原因與經濟原因,社區內通常出租屋、短租房較多,戶籍人口較少,外來流動人口占大多數,人員流動性大、構成復雜,多發性侵財類案件高發,安全感普遍不高,亟需解決的是基本的安全問題,如摸清人員構成與底數,發現各類可疑人員出沒與動向,及時感知異常事件的發生等等。

  城中村/轉制社區的開放性與復雜性導致了其安全防范難度遠超封閉式的物業小區。在技術上,由于人、車出入難以得到有效管理,智慧社區建設中常用的安防技術如視頻監控、入侵報警、停車場管理、門禁管理等發揮的作用極其有限,需要更加智能的技術手段盡量在無感知的情況下全面獲取社區各方面的信息;在管理上,社區聯防隊、村委會等安保與管理力量,一是沒有執法權對各類人員進行強制性管理,二是也缺乏足夠的技術與業務能力,從茫茫人海中甄別出可疑的人員。由此可見,此類社區安全防范的重點在于人,既需要智慧化、精準化的技術手段支撐,也需要在技術與業務上聯動如公安機關等強力執法部門,方可實現對社區的智慧化與精細化安全防范。

  2.商住混合社區(開放式社區)的安防難點分析

  以開放式社區中的商住混合社區為例,這類社區以大型商住綜合體居多,社區內往往包括公寓(含長租與酒店式短租)、戶外/戶內廣場、商場、停車場、寫字樓等多種用途的場所。除了出沒人員復雜、人車流動性大等特點外,其商業屬性也造成了人流密集、人群聚集度高。從安全防范的角度,既需要控點——厘清在公寓、短租房實際居住人員的身份、數量,及時發現風險,又需要控面——實時監測商場人流及人數,防患于未然,安全壓力更甚于城中村類型的社區。由此可見,商住混合社區對于安防技術的需求,除了人車出入管理外,還有基于其特點的風險識別與異常預警需求,這恰恰都是傳統的以人車出入口控制技術為核心的智慧社區建設模式難以解決的問題。

  3.物業小區(封閉式社區)安防難點分析

  而封閉式社區中的物業小區類型,由于環境封閉,常規的智慧社區技術手段應用效果良好,日常還有完善的物業與安保人員作為技防手段的補充管理,其安全防范的重點不在于防范外來人員,而更多聚焦在使現有安防手段進一步協同化、融合化與智慧化等提升用戶體驗、減少安全漏洞的問題上。例如,當居民家中煙感報警被觸發,監控中心是否能通過可視對講、電話、短信等多渠道快速聯絡業主或住客,獲悉現場情況,確認是否誤報;當確認不是誤報后,如何能更準確的通知最近的物管或聯防人員趕赴現場,如何能快速聯動相應的公安、消防等部門;日常運行中如何能精準測算住戶狀態,根據不同的狀態實行不同的安保策略(如過年期間,若測算出小區業主大多離開本地,房間空置居多,則需要實行更嚴格的安保措施)。在技術與業務上,這也遠遠超過了傳統以物業公司為主導的、以出入管理為主的智慧社區建設的范圍。

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