構建萬物智聯的AIoT生態 驅動新型智慧城市發展

2019-06-10 09:54 來源: 安防知識網
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  從廣泛的定義來看,AIoT就是人工智能技術與物聯網在實際應用中的落地融合,它并不是新技術,而是一種新的IoT應用形態。具體來看,深度學習的資源需要物聯網傳感器來收集,物聯網的系統也需要靠人工智能做到正確的辨識、發現異常、預測未來。也就是說,人工智能與物聯網的結合是未來技術應用的重大變革,將為產業帶來顛覆性發展。


  相關調查報告顯示,2019年全球AIoT市場規模為51億美元,到2024年這一數字將增長至162億美元,復合年增長率為26.0%。全球AIoT市場增長迅猛,而我國也已在各行各業間掀起了探索AIoT應用落地的浪潮,包括阿里巴巴、華為、騰訊小米、曠視等企業都紛紛發布了自身的AIoT發展戰略,加速國內AIoT產業的形成。此外,在國家政策層面上,國務院于2017年印發《新一代人工智能發展規劃》,將發展人工智能上升為國家戰略;在《2019年國務院政府工作報告》中,政府又提出“打造工業互聯網平臺,拓展“智能+”,這一舉措也被看作是國家為萬物智聯時代的啟幕。


  而AIoT在智慧城市中的運用,實際上是幫助實現傳統智慧城市,即數字城市,向新型智慧城市的過渡。數字城市以物聯網設備的大規模普及為基礎,據Strategy Analytics的研究顯示,截至2018年底,全球物聯網設備數量已達到了220億臺,到2025年將達到386億臺,高速增長的物聯網設備實現了城市的初級智能。但同時,眾多物聯設備在使用過程中也產生了龐大的非結構化數據和信息孤島難題,從而制約城市向更高級的智慧形態發展。而人工智能可憑借其對數據強大的學習、分析以及決策能力,克服物聯網應用中的難題,通過"AI+IoT”的形式賦予物聯設備更智能化的特性,做到真正意義上的萬物互聯、萬物智聯。AIoT是智慧科技發展的必然趨勢,也是數字城市升級為新型智慧城市所必需的物質介質。


  構建AIoT生態,AI三要素亦是基礎


  AIoT是指AI與IoT的互補融合,因此在組成上,基本涵蓋兩種技術的核心“精華”。眾所周知,數據、算力、算法是人工智能的三要素,追本溯源,這三要素同樣是AIoT的三要素。


  IoT之于未來,其核心精華就是數據,而數據也正是AI的基石。持續增加的IoT設備終將讓數字化覆蓋全球各個角落,如此一來,AI理解人類的全部世界必要獲得每個角落的數據,AI+IoT也將以數據為紐帶成為下一階段科技發展的必然。


  本質上來看,AIoT就是算法對數據的計算,因此算法和算力的協同進步也是AIoT發展的關鍵。


  過去幾年,機器學習算法迅速發展,從深度學習,DNN、RNN、CNN、到GAN,不斷有新的發明創造出來。這些算法推動人工智能發展的同時,也對算力帶來了嚴峻的考驗。搭建AI算力平臺,需要大量的CPU和GPU,如當前風靡全球的AlphaGo,其使用的TPU就是一種類似GPU的算法芯片,但其能耗功效比非常高:訓練AlphaGo的算力相當于12000塊常見的消費級1080TI,所花費的開支逾千萬。此外,普通計算機的計算能力也十分有限,利用其訓練一個模型往往需要數周至數月的時間,密集和頻繁地使用高速計算資源,其所花費的成本往往難以估計。這些開銷對于中小型企業而言,往往是難以負擔的巨額數字。也就是說,在當前緊張的芯片格局之下,對于企業來說,其需要花很多錢才能購買到需要的算力,以支撐硬件的發展和產出。


  不過令人欣喜的是,國家近年來也在加大對計算基礎建設的投入。截至2019年,我國由科技部批準建立的國家超級計算中心共有七家,分別落戶在天津、廣州、深圳、長沙、濟南、無錫和鄭州。而隨著這七家超算中心的成立,先進的人工智能超算水平也更好的助力了企業AIoT 應用及地方的智慧城市發展。


  AIoT熱潮下,AI企業的發展之道


  目前看來,盡管BAT公司紛紛布局并加速AIoT應用落地,但這并不代表這在AIoT的賽道上,他們就擁有了先發優勢。AIoT大道其行,那些以深度學習、算法起家的人工智能公司,在戰略、技術、產品乃至方案上精準切入AIoT市場,擠進了AIoT戰場的隊伍,并大有著超越先發玩家的趨勢。


  在推動AIoT發展的城市大腦、城市規劃、醫療健康、工業制造等等,開啟了人工智能在非消費市場之外的更多可能性。


  以AIoT在智慧城市中的應用為力,部分人工智能公司以“構建驅動百億臺智能設備的物聯網生態系統”的宏偉愿景企業的發展戰略,把感知、控制、優化能力賦能給IoT設備,實現物理世界與數字世界的智能物聯,并持續打造在城市大腦、供應鏈大腦、個人設備大腦三大場景的智能物聯解決方案。


  AIoT是從萬物互聯到萬物智聯的過渡,而不少人工智能公司如曠視科技,正在圍繞核心AI技術能力,構建AIoT操作系統,從而連接不同行業中的多樣化物聯設備,打造具備大規模AI計算、模擬、決策能力的控制平臺,用軟硬結合的解決方案為客戶提供閉環的商業價值。


  與手機端的Android、iOS不同,這類在時代熱潮下誕生的AIoT操作系統,集一站式解決規劃、仿真、實施、運營全流程為一體,所聚焦的領域為機器人與物流、制造業務快速集成等,而手機瞄準的是消費領域。此外,這類AIoT操作系統還具有生態連接、協同智能和數字孿生三大特性。在生態連接方面,該操作系統作為開放平臺不僅能夠連接公司自身生產的機器人,還能連接生態合作伙伴的所有的設備;在協同智能方面,該操作系統在路徑規劃、庫維優化、負載均衡、作業調度層面提供了大量優化算法,以適配不同的業務場景;而至于在數字孿生方面,此類AIoT操作系統做到了真實的物理世界和數字化世界完全一致,并通過將設計、仿真、實施、運行,整合為同一套貼近業務且能直接應用于生產作業的系統,把方案和算法統一建模,全鏈路系統性支持,讓整個過程有機且整體,從而實現所畫即所得的連接和智能。


  當然,除了構建AIoT操作系統,研發智能物聯硬件設備也是實現AIoT應用的關鍵組成。具體看來,智能物聯硬件設備將智能技術嵌入在物聯基礎設施中,可在前端完成對核心數據的抓取、分析,是解決行業細分場景痛點問題,是幫助用戶實現智能化升級穩定、高效的手段之一。基于以上特性,不少人工智能公司紛紛立足城市管理、樓宇園區、教育、金融、零售等行業,先后推出了一系列智能物聯硬件產品,包括人臉識別攝像機、人臉識別閘機等等,為用戶實現降本增效的價值創造。


  結語:總結來看,AIoT在當前雖仍處于發展初期,但其蘊藏著無窮的應用潛力,將為我們創造一個高度智慧化的未來世界。現下,人工智能、物聯網和云計算作為萬物智聯的核心驅動力,仍需產業間和國家政策層面持續擴大投入和扶持力度,以更好的促進彼此之間的融合發展,形成完善、高質量的AIoT建設體系,壯大AIoT產業,為智慧城市、智慧經濟的發展輸送旺盛動力。

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責任編輯:xuxiangnan
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