人工智能時代的法律挑戰

2019-06-05 09:16 來源: 千家網
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  習近平總書記在中共中央政治局第九次集體學習上的講話中強調:“加快發展新一代人工智能是我們贏得全球科技競爭主動權的重要戰略抓手,是推動我國科技跨越發展、產業優化升級、生產力整體躍升的重要戰略資源。”人工智能是時代之需、發展之要、民生之盼,必須放眼全球,把人工智能發展放在國家戰略層面系統布局、主動謀劃,牢牢把握人工智能發展新階段國際競爭的戰略主動、打造競爭新優勢、開拓發展新空間,有效保障國家安全。然而,人工智能的發展在便利社會生活,提高人類福利的同時,也對社會治理、政府監管、社會倫理、法律規范等方面提出了挑戰,其中,法律方面的挑戰體現在人工智能時代因技術短板、監管漏洞、應用失范等因素而誘發的法律風險以及法律對此所作出的回應是否精準、有效、及時。


  人工智能面對的多種挑戰


  第一,人工智能對法律原則的挑戰。平等原則是法律的一項重要原則,體現為對當事人在適用法律上一律平等。人工智能時代,特別是智能機器人的出現對平等原則造成兩方面的沖擊:一方面是機器人內部間的平等問題。目前,法律主體主要包括自然人、法人和其他組織、國家三類。然而,伴隨著人工智能產品擬人化、智能化程度的不斷提高,一個不可避免的問題擺在法律面前──應當如何認定智能產品的主體地位。例如智能機器人是否能夠納入法律主體?若將其納入法律主體的范疇,權利能力起始和終止時間如何確定?不同類型、不同軟件、不同算法、不同智能化程度的機器人是否平等地適用法律?另一方面對原則的沖擊則體現為機器人與人類之間的平等問題,即機器人與人類的民事權利能力與民事行為能力是部分平等還是完全平等?機器人是否構成刑事法律主體以及如何承擔刑罰問責等問題。


  第二,人工智能對產品責任的挑戰。關于人工智能產品致人損害的法律責任問題,涉及一系列復雜的責任認定。例如,現行《道路交通安全法》是基于司機人工駕駛的模式設立的,而無人駕駛汽車的發展,勢必要經歷有人與無人駕駛的過渡階段,在還有人為介入的情況下,如何在事故中界定責任屬于產品的技術漏洞抑或駕駛人員的不當使用?事故中是否涉及算法引起的控制問題,抑或是人工智能系統超越原控制方案的“自身行為”?此外,關于無人駕駛汽車的損害賠償責任、平臺責任、保險類型、數據安全等多個方面,仍然有待于法律作出明確規范。


  第三,人工智能對數據安全的挑戰。人工智能的大多數應用需要“大數據”支持。在云計算和快速增長的數據量推動下,人工智能已在越來越多的領域得到應用。為執行任務,人工智能要大量地搜集、存儲和分析數據。從數據隱私的角度來看,人工智能對數據的大量使用,使得妥善保護數據變得越來越重要。隨著人工智能系統越來越多地被整合到基礎設施、生產制造、商業運營和日常生活中,在醫療、交通、金融、娛樂、購物、執法等各個領域得到應用,特別是與物聯網(IoT)和相關的生物物聯網(Bio-IoT)的相互融合,關于個人的基因、面孔、財務、偏好等數據將無處藏匿,無所不在的數據捕獲和優化對數據隱私和安全構成了威脅。


  應對人工智能發展中面臨的法律風險


  毫無疑問,人工智能將成為未來經濟社會發展的關鍵力量,也將成為國際競爭的重要領域,我國應當在積極促進和保障人工智能的發展的同時,未雨綢繆地判明人工智能發展中面臨的法律風險點,力爭在搶抓戰略機遇、保持先發優勢的同時,化危為機,以法律促進科學的良性發展。


  第一,科學立法:構建良善的法律體系。按照國務院《新一代人工智能發展規劃》三步走的戰略目標要求,“到2020年,人工智能總體技術和應用與世界先進水平同步,部分領域的人工智能倫理規范和政策法規應初步建立。”人工智能的健康發展需要一部反映時代需求的《人工智能法》以及配套法規組成的法律法規體系。同時,也應重視法律與科技發展的辯證關系,現階段正處在人工智能技術的高速發展期,新興技術層出不窮,應當制定必要的原則框架,但立法不宜過細,以免制約科技進步。建議秉承著科技引領、系統布局、市場主導、資源開放的原則,大力加強人工智能領域的立法研究,制定相應的法律法規,建立健全公開透明的人工智能監管體系,構建人工智能創新發展的良好法治環境。


  第二,精準執法:健全務實的政策支撐體系。首先,明確行業安全標準。根據習近平總書記關于人工智能“安全、可靠、可控”的發展要求,制定并細化行業安全標準,嚴格推行技術、產品認證制度。對符合標準、通過檢測的技術和產品準入投放市場。對已進入流通環節未認證或不達標的技術和產品一律強制退出,并依法、依規明確相關主體責任;其次,加大重點領域管控。借助大數據分析人工智能領域侵權、犯罪的易發、多發節點,及時升級人工智能設計、應用、流通、推廣等關鍵環節的風險抵御能力,加大對代碼、數據、算法等重點領域的綜合管控力度,保障技術安全、產品安全、數據安全、應用安全;再次,及時優化調整。建議成立專項政策督察組,常態化監測人工智能產業政策實施狀況。按照“誰主管、誰負責、誰出臺、誰維護”的原則督促政策制定部門對與形勢發展不協調、不配套的政策及時做好法律法規的立、改、廢工作,確保法規政策的常用常新、與時俱進,不斷滿足新一代人工智能的新情況、新需求。


  第三,有效司法:構建科學的應對體系。一方面,司法要針對人工智能在法律、安全、就業、道德倫理和政府治理等方面提出的新課題,加強人工智能發展與法治的前瞻性研究,積極構建人工智能未來法治體系,準確把握司法規律與人工智能特征的結合,積極拓展司法應用的空間,使人工智能更好地服務司法,推進司法本身現代化的實現;另一方面,積極進行司法解釋,時刻堅守司法作為維護社會公平正義的最后一道防線,明確個人信息和隱私保護、禁止傷害的安全倫理底線保障。對于立法尚不明確,而實際案件又不斷涌現的人工智能領域,建議通過司法解釋為重點問題、突出問題尋得化解矛盾糾紛的辦法,為立法工作贏得必要的時間和經驗。例如在民事案件處理中,重點解決好人工智能生成內容的權利歸屬、人工智能損害后果的責任分擔;在刑事案件處理中,著力解決人工智能相關犯罪行為的定性和量刑幅度;在知識產權案件處理中,力爭解決對算法、芯片等核心技術仿冒、侵權行為的責任賠償標準等。

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責任編輯:xuxiangnan
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