高速公路ETC自由流收費技術

2019-06-12 09:50 來源: 億歐智慧城市
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  ETC(Electronic Toll Collection)電子不停車收費系統,是目前國際上較為先進的路橋電子收費技術,在歐美國家發展較為成熟,很多已采取主線自由流化的ETC收費。在我國,ETC技術隨著高速公路建設不斷發展,2015年全國聯網后更是成為各省高速公路重要的繳費方式,目前ETC繳費占比超35%(廣東43%)。

  ETC技術以其自動化程度高、免停車快速通行等特點逐漸被高速公路營運方、車輛用戶所接受,但我國ETC技術主要布局于收費站車道,還沒有探索ETC自由流化收費的大規模應用實踐。

  ETC發展存在的問題

  (1)技術發展方面

  ETC技術應用于收費公路,在歐美國家有二十多年的歷史,主要采取單片式電子標簽(OBU)技術,簡單方便,成本低,但要求ETC車道覆蓋率非常高,否則,起步階段用戶使用體驗很差。

  我國收費公路ETC技術借鑒于鄰國日本,日本在21世紀初開始采用兩片式組合ETC收費技術,即電子標簽(OBU)+IC卡模式,該技術更安全、靈活,起步階段在ETC車道覆蓋率低的情況下,可取出IC卡作為通行介質。

  廣東最早于2002年引入基于5.8GHz DSRC的兩片式組合ETC收費技術,并將其納入廣東省聯網收費地方標準,2007年上升為交通運輸部標準;2015年9月底全國ETC聯網完成。目前,全國建成了超過2萬條ETC車道,發展兩片式組合ETC用戶近6500萬個。

  我國收費公路ETC技術十多年沒有大的變革。

  兩片式組合收費模式在發展初期適應我國高速公路建設國情,在ETC車道覆蓋率極低的情況下可滿足ETC用戶通行需求,但目前全國ETC車道覆蓋率超過95%(廣東98.2%),主線和省界站已達到99%(廣東100%),大部分用戶在絕大部分通行時不再需要取出IC,兩片式組合ETC收費技術的靈活性特質在我國現階段表現不再突出,相反,因交易時與車載單元(OBU)和IC卡安全認證帶來的多次通信握手、IC卡自身讀寫異常所帶來的通行問題越來越突出。

  據統計,ETC車道異常超60%與IC卡相關。

  國標ETC核心交易時間是270ms,各省因交易復雜程度不一,ETC核心交易時間普遍超過300ms,核心交易時間長、交易異常率高導致ETC通行速度慢(國標為20公里/小時),用戶通行體驗一般。

  (2)車道建設方面

  我國ETC車道建設規模不夠超前,日本高速公路絕大部分為ETC收費,每個收費站僅保留一條人工自助收費車道,而我國ETC車道級覆蓋率(ETC車道占總車道比例)不足三成(廣東25.2%),絕大部分收費站僅有1入1出兩條ETC車道。

  隨著車流量不斷增長,單條ETC車道通行能力飽和,廣東珠江三角洲地區多條ETC車道日均通行量超過1萬車次,很多城市重要出入口收費站ETC日均通行量超過5000車次,部分時段出現ETC車道排隊情況。

  而ETC車流量占收費站總車流量普遍不超50%,人工收費仍是主流,在車道資源有限的情況下,ETC車道超前建設需求與MTC仍是主流車道之間的矛盾越發凸顯。ETC車道不可能無限制建設下去,特別是經濟發達地區重要城市出入口(如廣東珠江三角洲區域)受收費站規模、物理車道條數等因素限制,必須依靠ETC技術自身突破。

  (3)新技術挑戰方面

  隨著手機移動支付技術的發展,各行各業無現金支付比例越來越高,而高速公路收費長期以來只有現金和ETC支付兩種模式,車輛用戶要求高速公路行業兼容手機移動支付的呼聲不斷提高。

  近年來,采用后臺綁定移動支付賬戶、前端借助高清圖像識別+地圖信息技術(GIS)實現不停車收費的創新實踐在很多省份如火如荼開展,特別是在大型互聯網公司推動下,如支付寶在河南等地推出的無感支付,微信在山東推出的ITC支付等,對ETC技術發展提出了不小的挑戰。

  而公安部電子車牌技術(基于RFID技術)已在多地開展試驗,相關標準已出臺,同為車輛身份的微波識別技術,如果在全國機動車推行實施并與支付打通,可能直接取代現有ETC收費技術。

  同時,國家大力推行北斗高精度導航技術應用,交通運輸部也要求高速公路行業研究該技術在收費、道路拯救、養護等方面的應用,這也將對ETC技術產生威脅。

  總而言之,如果ETC技術不能適應新技術、新業態發展,將很有可能被其他新型收費技術跨界取代。

  ETC創新發展思路

  ETC技術應該充分發揮自身技術特點,即電子標簽識別率高(99%以上,日本達到99.99%,遠高于高清圖像識別)、交易安全可靠性高、可實現無收費站的自由流收費(歐美國家已普遍采用)。

  因此,ETC技術發展創新,一是要徹底改變目前國標ETC交易模式,改兩片式組合ETC收費為“電子標簽識別+后臺賬戶扣費”模式,大幅降低國標ETC核心交易時間,減少IC卡片交易耗時并大幅降低異常率,提高ETC整體通行效率。

  二是改變目前單ETC車道交易的技術模式,將ETC前置于收費匝道或主線,通過與收費站所有車道的組合聯動,在不突破現有國標ETC技術的前提下,實現以距離換速度、以冗余交易換成功率的目的,同時大幅降低收費站ETC建設成本,緩解ETC車道與MTC建設平衡的矛盾,提高收費站整體通行效率。主要有兩種技術表現形態:

  (1)匝道ETC自由流+匝道收費站聯動

  技術實現思路:在收費站匝道以龍門架方式部署ETC設備,將ETC收費提前到匝道進行,相當于預設一條自由流化ETC交易車道。對低速(≤80公里/小時)經過匝道的ETC車輛提前交易,而收費廣場的ETC和MTC車道只需要進行交易車輛名單核對和補充二次冗余交易(一次交易未成功前提下),即可快速完成車輛收費。

  該技術通過“匝道交易、車道驗證”模式,極大地提升了收費站ETC車道通行能力,通過與MTC車道聯動,進而實現收費廣場ETC化的目標,達到提升收費廣場整體車輛通行能力的目的,如圖1所示。

  (圖1:匝道ETC自由流車道布局示意圖)

  (2)主線ETC自由流+主線收費站聯動

  技術思路:在匝道ETC自由流技術基礎上,進一步提高ETC車輛在高速行駛(≥100公里/小時)條件下的一次交易成功率;同時,革新ETC天線技術,探索單個ETC天線管理多條車道(2條或以上)的可靠性,降低主線ETC自由流建設成本。主線ETC自由流車道布局如圖2所示。

  (圖2:主線ETC自由流車道布局示意圖)

  技術驗證

  廣東省在2017年開展匝道ETC自由流技術研究,并在2017年底至2018年初先后開通東新南浦站、廣珠西石洲站和廣清新華站三套匝道ETC自由流收費系統,整體試點達到預期效果,單條ETC車道通行速度理論值提升3倍以上,整個收費站廣場通行效率提升30%。部分試點收費站實拍圖片如圖3所示。

  (圖3:試點收費站匝道ETC自由流實拍圖片)

  核心指標驗證一:匝道一次交易成功率。

  即匝道ETC交易成功次數占整個收費站ETC通行次數的比例,通過測試,匝道一次交易成功率超過98%。

  核心指標驗證二:ETC車道核心交易時間。

  即在匝道完成ETC交易后,在收費站ETC車道驗證時的核心交易時間,由原來的約300ms大幅下降至目前的15~30ms。


  (圖4:ETC車道核心交易時間比對圖)

  核心指標驗證三:MTC車道通行能力。

  即沒有采用匝道ETC自由流完成預交易前的ETC用戶進入MTC車道完成交易的時間,與采用匝道ETC自由流技術后已完成匝道預交易的ETC車輛進入聯動的MTC車道的交易時間對比,MTC車道通過車牌識別驗證預交易名單庫,可實現MTC車道準快速通行。

  (圖5:MTC車道交易時間對比圖)

  廣東匝道ETC自由流技術于2018年5月7日通過中國公路協會組織的技術評價,專家一致認為該技術是對現有ETC技術的有益創新,項目研究成果在國內達到領先水平。

  ETC技術發展趨勢展望

  (一)完全ETC自由收費形態,不與任何收費站組合,主線自由流方式下以高速、高可靠的一次交易成功率完成不停車收費。在ETC用戶成為絕對主流、高速公路去現金化收費基本實現、信用體系更加完善等前提下,完全ETC自由流將成為高速公路收費主要技術形態。

  (二)ETC技術主動擁抱各類新技術,如移動支付技術、電子車牌技術、高清視頻識別+地圖信息技術、北斗高精度定位技術等,做好融合發展,使ETC識別準確率更高、交易速度更快、線上化發展思路更清晰,進一步煥發出ETC技術新的生命力。

  (三)跟進智能電子標簽特別是具備移動通信(4G,未來5G)能力的智能電子標簽的發展,在滿足ETC自由流收費的同時,豐富路與車之間的信息交互內容,為將來過渡到車路協同(V2X)技術,提前構建起完整的“智能電子標簽+智能路側設備+云端信息服務平臺”的基礎框架(注:目前基于5.8GHz DSRC的ETC收費技術與基于5.8GHz DSRC的車路協同技術并不等同,這里更強調在現有ETC技術下建立起未來車路協同服務體系架構,不受限于未來采取何種通信技術)。

  結束語

  2018年5月16日,李克強總理在國務院常務會議上提出“推動取消高速公路省界收費站”。消息一出,如巨石投水,給高速公路行業帶來不小的震動。

  作為高速公路從業者,應冷靜分析該政策出臺的動因,社會更多地呼喚高速公路在收費后能提供更加高效、快捷的通行服務。我們應順應時代發展潮流,以新時代交通發展滿足人民群眾便捷出行的美好需求為目的,大力推動諸如主線ETC自由流收費等新興技術應用。

  隨著國家法制和信用體系的不斷完善,也許在不遠的將來,物理的省界、匝道、端頭收費站等都將不復存在,真正讓廣大車主在高速公路上實現“無感通行”的極致體驗。

標簽:

責任編輯:xuxiangnan
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