時空大數據服務智慧城市和自然資源信息共享

2019-06-11 10:15 來源: 超圖集團
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  改革開放以來,我國經濟社會實現了高速發展,2011年,全國常住人口城鎮化率突破50%,標志著城鎮化發展拐點來臨,出現了越來越多的環境污染、生態破壞、資源超載等問題。“人的命脈在田,田的命脈在水,水的命脈在山,山的命脈在土,土的命脈在樹”,山水林田湖草是一個生命共同體,綠水青山就是金山銀山。在新時期,生態文明建設成為國家持續發展的重要戰略;而生態文明建設,首先需要對自然資源進行全域、全空間的統一管控。

  時空大數據平臺是城市的時空基礎設施,支撐城市各類信息資源匯聚、共享、協同,主要面向智慧城市領域,提供城市公共信息資源的融合共享;國土空間基礎信息平臺是自然資源相關工作統一的底圖、底線、底板,支撐自然資源相關信息資源匯聚、共享、協同,主要面向自然資源領域,提供自然資源信息資源的融合共享。兩者在本質上皆為數據資源匯聚、共享的平臺,時空大數據平臺可以為國土空間基礎平臺以及自然資源領域應用提供城市公共信息資源以及共享服務。

  今年1月,自然資源部發布《智慧城市時空大數據平臺建設技術大綱(2019版)》,強調將時空大數據平臺定位為數字中國時空信息數據庫的重要組成部分,并要求基于時空大數據平臺,融合自然資源管理相關數據,為國土空間規劃、空間用途管制、生態修復、自然資源確權登記、自然資源資產管理等提供服務支撐。

  時空大數據平臺的“DIKW”模型

  時空大數據平臺,作為數字中國時空信息數據庫的重要組成以及服務自然資源管理“兩統一”職責的重要保障,其核心是基于統一的時空框架,匯聚、融合、管理、挖掘城市各類信息資源,通過開放式平臺,為智慧城市各領域應用提供時空信息、空間大數據挖掘分析以及可視化等共享服務。這一過程可以按照“DIKW”模型,圍繞實體庫、指標庫、模型庫和知識庫等“四庫”來實現。

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  DIKW金字塔

  實體庫存放原始的數據(Data),如人口、用地、房屋等;指標庫表達體征信息(Information),是由實體數據經過匯總得出的統計數據,如人均住房面積、日均客流量等數據;模型庫存放知識(Knowledge),通過構建分析模型對指標進一步組合計算,例如利用資源承載力模型分析城市資源承載力,利用土地開發強度模式分析城市土地開發強度;知識庫存放“智慧(Wisdom)”,通過對未來情況的預測來體現其智慧的屬性,例如在規劃階段就可通過模型分析預測地鐵建成后的客流量,為決策者實現科學決策提供支撐。

  從實體、到指標、到模型、到知識,逐層進階,實現對城市的描述性、診斷性、預測性以及處方性分析。

  基于實體的數據融合

  地理實體是現實世界中獨立存在、可唯一性標識的自然或人工地物。在智慧城市領域,城市、街道、社區以及建筑物、道路、河流等是實體;在自然資源領域,山、水、林、田、湖、草等也都是實體,可以更為客觀的描述現實世界的對象。

  按照實體化的理念,將城市各類數據資源進行實體化處理,并設計統一的實體編碼;通過編碼,建立起實體與業務專題數據之間的關聯關系,實現基于實體的多源數據的融合。在應用過程中,將實體以及關聯數據、功能等,封裝為API(應用程序接口),服務于不同領域應用。

  基于指標的動態監測

  指標是反映統計總體的數量特征,一般由一系列相關或相互獨立的指標形成一個指標體系來進行綜合衡量。在智慧城市領域,指標體系可以從社會經濟、行政區劃、自然資源、旅游資源、交通運輸等角度出發,動態表達城市體征;在自然資源領域,指標體系可以從創新、協調、綠色、開放、共享、安全等角度出發,動態監測規劃實施情況。

  指標體系的構建,可基于體系化、專業化、常態化的思路進行梳理。在體系化上,通過建立指標庫與維度庫,將原有的報表建庫模式變為指標建庫,由不同的維度支撐數據多視角表達;在專業化上,參考國家相關標準,在行業專家的參與下,完成指標體系提升;在常態化上,建立指標體系更新機制,由原來繁瑣的手工報表填寫更新方式升級為定時調度任務完成指標數據的更新,減少運維成本,同時能夠使指標體系更為持久的運行。

  所有指標都可以基于實體庫進行實時計算,具有周期性、可量化的特點,有利于進行持續監測,是科學決策的基礎。

  基于模型的科學監管

  模型是利用一定規則進行特征描述與表達的方法。在智慧城市領域,如通過公共服務均等化能力、生態宜居能力等模型進行評價,分析城市服務水平與能力;在自然資源領域,如通過資源環境承載力評價、國土空間開發適宜性評價等,深入分析挖掘區域承載能力,實現科學監管。

  聚焦需要解決的問題,靈活選擇實體數據與指標信息,構建模型來挖掘要素、現象與特征之間的關聯關系,診斷問題起因,追溯問題根源,是實現科學監管的重要支撐。

  基于知識的優化決策

  知識是綜合一系列科學計算與專家經驗,對未來可能發生的事情進行預測與優化。在智慧城市領域,如通過水情、雨情等情況的動態監測與預報信息,分析內澇發生的概率與時間周期,模擬城市內澇影響范圍與發展態勢,短期提出預警,未來可為防澇工作部署與應急預案提供決策支持。在自然資源領域,如通過人口預測與經濟發展潛力,分析未來區域用地總量及發展潛力,為規劃提供數字化決策支撐。

  結語

  基于“DIKW”的時空大數據平臺,融合智慧城市建設和自然資源管理相關數據,將有效滿足智慧城市和自然資源領域對多源數據匯聚、融合、管理、挖掘分析的需求,為智慧城市建設、國土空間規劃、空間用途管制、生態修復、自然資源確權登記、自然資源資產管理等全過程提供智能化服務支撐。

標簽:

責任編輯:xuxiangnan
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