氣象、海洋與環境領域高性能計算解決方案

2019-03-08 09:21 來源: 中科曙光Sugon
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  • 方案類別:基礎設施

  氣象、環境、海洋預報事業關系國計民生的各個方面,對人們的生產生活有巨大影響。近年來極端天氣、重污染天氣和極端氣候頻發,自然災害增多,對氣象、環境、海洋及相關行業的預報業務提出更高的需求。十三五期間,各類預報的準確率、時效性、精細化程度和服務水平都需要繼續提高,為人們提供更好的預報結果。

  氣象、環境、海洋預報是指是指根據流體(大氣或海洋)的物理和運動特性,在一定的初值和邊值條件下,通過大型計算機進行數值計算,求解描寫流體演變過程的流體力學、熱力學和大氣化學控制方程組,預測未來一定時段的流體運動狀態和天氣現象的方法。隨著數值模式的日益成熟、大型計算機性能的不斷提升,數值預報系統現已成為氣象、海洋行業業務和科研不可或缺的支撐工具。

  數值預報涉及的應用主要包括氣象模式、海洋模式、氣候模式、環境模式及衛星、遙感資料處理程序等。常用的氣象模式包括WRF、GRAPES、AREMS、LAPS、ARPS等,常用的海洋模式包括FVCOM、ROMS、HYCOM、POP等,環境常用模式包括NAQPMS、CMAQ、CAMx、WRF-Chem等,氣候模式包括CCSM3、CESM等。各種模式在流程上有一定的相似性,都包括數據前處理,主模式計算和結果后處理三部分。數據前處理包括地形和地表資料、氣象預報背景場資料、各種氣象觀測資料(觀測站、雷達、衛星等)的處理和同化,為模式計算提供邊界場和初值;主模式計算是主要計算量所在,通過高性能計算機對數值方程的迭代求解,對CPU、網絡和IO都有較高的需求。結果后處理是指從模式計算結果提取各種氣象信息元素,并以圖形、動畫、網頁等形式將結果呈現給氣象預報人員。

  氣象、環境、海洋預報模式對高性能計算系統有著非常苛刻的要求:首先,模式求解有非常大的計算量,而氣象預報又要求極高的實時性,模式必須在指定時間內完成運算,另一方面預報精度的不斷提高,所需計算量也將成幾何級上升。其次,模式計算對網絡通信壓力很大,多數模式采用格點有限差分法做并行計算,除了模擬域內部格點間的數據通訊,當模擬區域嵌套時還涉及母域和嵌套域之間的域間通訊,因此要求配置高速的通信網絡。另外,氣象過程模擬涉及海量小文件的處理,對系統IO性要求很高,要求持續的IO存儲帶寬,一般使用有分布式IO或者并行文件系統,否則很難有較好的加速比。

  基于對應用軟件的特征分析和在氣象、環境、海洋領域多年的成功經驗,曙光推薦如下高性能計算集群解決方案:

  在硬件層面,高性能計算系統分為8個子系統:(1)登陸管理系統:采用雙機架節點,實現雙機熱備,配置和計算系統同型號的CPU;(2)計算系統:采用高密度、低功耗、易管理的刀片服務器,如曙光TC4600/TC6600,刀片節點可配置雙路/四路,采用最新的64位Intel E5或E7處理器,注重浮點峰值和內存性能;(3)并行存儲系統:并行存儲系統采用曙光ParaStor300分布式并行存儲系統,提供大容量、高帶寬的共享存儲,用于計算節點的并行讀寫;(4)應用服務器:采用多臺機架節點組成應用服務器集群,用于數據傳輸、發布、管理等,配備專門的應用存儲系統;(5)應用存儲系統:采用曙光DS800系列磁盤陣列,用于滿足應用服務器個性化的存儲需求,保證服務質量;(6)網絡系統:管理網絡采用普通千兆網絡,計算網絡采用低延遲、高帶寬的EDR InfiniBand/OmniPath互聯網絡,能大幅度提高應用程序的計算速度和并行加速比。

  在軟件層面,曙光為氣象、海洋用戶配備完備的并行計算開發和運行環境,配置曙光Gridview集群監控管理及作業調度軟件,包含針對不同模式軟件開發的Web作業提交界面ClusPortal,可以大大降低高性能計算機的使用門檻。曙光有全國各地上百個氣象行業的成功案例,可免費提供常用數值模式的安裝、調試和培訓服務,并配合用戶完成數值預報業務系統的安裝調試。

標簽:

責任編輯:徐向南
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